Category Archives: Economics

Wuppertal Introduction

This city is both poly-centric and a linear city. Along its axis is the 13km-long suspension railway (Schwebebahn), with around 65,000 passengers each day using its 20 stations. Alongside this is the heavy rail line with 400 train journeys daily through 9 stations, and below these is the B7 German federal highway. Crossing all of them is the Sonnborner cross-motorway junction, which at the time of its opening in 1974 was considered the largest inner-city motorway intersection in Europe. This place is very well connected.

The city is said to have no clear centre. It has two major urban centres (Elberfeld and Barmen) and five other districts, which are predominantly small towns with their own centres. The city of Wuppertal was not actually governed by a single city council until 1929, when 5 smaller cities united, then in 1975 it divided into 9 municipalities or boroughs, which are further divided into 69 districts for statistical purposes. (Hamilton is divided into 44 areas by Census NZ).

Wuppertal claims to be the greenest city in Germany, and is said to have two-thirds green space in the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths. Here is an explanation of how it is measured. In total, 29% (4858 hectares) of the urban area is forest and open spaces, 7.8% (1318 hectares) consists of parks and green space, and 21% (about 3500 hectares) is used for agriculture. In addition, there are about 8000 allotments on 380 hectares and 46 cemeteries on an area of ​​160 hectares. The Wupper River also now flows clean and is alive with wild life, unlike two decades ago when schools would need to close because of the bad smell coming from it. As a benchmark of how green Hamilton is: ‘Currently, Hamilton has around 2% indigenous habitat cover.(p28) … at least 10% (preferably 20%) of remnant habitat cover is needed across a landscape to protect biodiversity and maintain the functions of ecosystems (p44)’. From: Community, Services and Environment Committee 30 Oct 2018

A bit of history on the cities of Elberfeld and Barmen, which together boasted 189,489 inhabitants in 1880, then the conurbation was regarded as the sixth largest city in the German Empire after Berlin, Hamburg, Breslau, Munich and Dresden. Cologne (144,772 inhabitants), Dusseldorf (95,458) and all cities of the Ruhr were well down in the bottom rankings.

From 1874 a horse tramway served the local traffic needs of the valley. But the local traffic problems continued to increase. In June 1903, the suspension railway opened. Bench-mark this against the world’s first electric elevated railway, which started in 1893 in Chicago when its population  was over 1 million; in 2012, the average number of weekday boardings on the Chicago Green Line was 70,554.  The Chicago model was proposed for partner towns along the Wupper River, but there were protests from the horse tramway company and a public discussion on the possible disfigurement of the cityscape, so the Schwebebahn was built.

What we need to ask ourselves is can we take on a project like this? Hamilton city is moving toward the population that Elberfeld and Barmen had 100 years ago. The people of these cities allowed themselves to let their interests overlap into each other’s cities. Even more impressive is the fact at a regional level the ‘Verkhrsverbund* Rhein-Ruhr’ (VRR) rail and ticketing extends into neighbouring regions and a neighbouring country (The Netherlands). Now look at the Hamilton to Auckland link. Our leaders have been living in silos and only recently allowed themselves to think about the overlapping benefits public transport links give to the regions. They now need to be ambitious. In 1887, the Elberfeld and Barmen councillors chose a ‘commission for examining the project of an elevated railway.’ Sixteen years and 16 million gold marks later the Wuppertal Schwebebah begain providing Wuppertal a public transport service, which has now been in operation for over a hundred years. (*means ‘Transport network’)

A few hours in Dusseldorf district 1&3

Dusseldorf is a great city. Like Rotterdam, Dusseldorf was badly bombed in WW2 and has been rebuilt.  Both use architecture and a Mast/Tower to make their city skyline stand out, and both have great inner city parks. Rotterdam has Het Park; Dusseldorf has Hor-garten. What I like about Dusseldorf is that it allows itself to feel more like a city centre than a business centre, with the parks being linked together, like the paths alongside the landscaped canal of the Konigsalle.

Altstadt (Old Town) is a borough in District 1. It lies between Hor-garten, Benrather Str, Breite Str and the Rhine, covering an area of half a square kilometre and has 2,297 inhabitants (2000). The density is 4,594 people per km². Compare this to what the Hamilton Central City Transformation Plan tells us: the Hamilton central area is 1.29 km2, and is home to 3,000 people, giving a density of 2,325 people per km2. Point to note: the safety benefit of a 24-hour ‘eyes on the street’ population in Hamilton central is half that of Altstadt in Dusseldorf.


A second point to note: is the small area near the river’s edge that is commercial (by the Ferris wheel). The Dusseldorf Rhine promenade itself has lots of width, making it a perfect place for walking, biking, hanging out… away from the busy commercial area.


District 3 contains the borough of Hafen, which is also known as Media Port. The borough covers 3.85 km2 and is predominantly commercial and industrial in nature. It has 212 residents (2000), giving a density of 55 people per km2. (City of Industry is very similar with 210 residents). The local tourist book states that 8,500 people work in this Media Port area, giving an employment density of 2,200 jobs per km2, which is similar to the City of Industry at 2,230 employees per km2, and a bit more than the planned Tainui Ruakura project at 1,780 employees per km2.


In total, District 3 covers an area of 24.20 square kilometres and (as of December 2009) has about 110,000 inhabitants, giving a density of 4,543 people per km2 (ppkm2), which is 3 times greater than Hamilton NZ. But this is too basic a way of measuring population density, because District 3 is made up of 8 boroughs with large density variations. There are Friedrichstadt, with 17,177 ppkm2 and Unterbilk with 11,039 ppkm2, which gives the area a big city, high-density look, and there are also Hamm, Volmerswerth and Flehe, with between 908 and 1,204 ppkm2, which no-one really notices. These lower density areas allow people to choice a more rural/village life style, yet still be in the city.

Category: CBD, Demographics, Economics